6 Surprising Health Benefits of Yerba Mate

What are the benefits of Yerba Mate?

Are there any side effects?

Yerba mate is derived from the leaves of the Ilex paraguariensis tree. This is a broadleaf evergreen tree that can reach up to 50 feet in height. This tree is native to Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, and parts of Paraguay. The leaves are known as “herb” or “yerba” in Spanish.  

The leaves are commercially harvested and contain caffeine, theobromine, and other useful compounds. 

An infusion, or mate, is prepared by steeping the dry leaves and twigs of the tree. This is where the name Yerba mate originates.

This product is consumed by over 1 million people worldwide.1

Yerba mate has become a popular ingredient in teas and energy drinks here in the United States. 

Health Benefits of Yerba Mate

There are many possible health benefits of yerba mate. I have recently started to enjoy this myself. It is just one of the many new herbal products I have added to my diet. 

Here is what I have learned about this tea.

Antioxidant Properties

There are several compounds contained in yerba mate that can act as free radical scavengers. A study published in Mutagenesis in July of 2008, concluded that mate tea might protect against DNA damage and improve DNA repair.2

It is well known that oxidative stress contributes to many disease processes.   




Yerba mate has been shown to improve serum glucose levels and decrease fat accumulation in diabetic rats.3 

Other rodent studies have shown long-term supplementation with Yerba mate may also improve hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.4

Heart Disease

The antioxidant compounds present in YM may lower the risk of heart disease. Yerba mate has demonstrated the ability to decrease the size of atherosclerotic lesions in animal models.5

Atherosclerosis or “hardening of the arteries” results in restrictive blood flow caused by a buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances. These buildups, or “plaques,” can also dislodge, forming a blood clot that may lead to a stroke or pulmonary embolus.  

Yerba Mate as a Weight Loss Supplement

Obesity leads to increased morbidity and mortality. The accumulation of visceral fat predisposes people to diseases such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes.6

Mice fed a high-fat diet are excellent models to study obesity.7

Yerba mate has been shown to have positive effects on weight loss. Mice models have demonstrated that mate affects food intake, increases energy expenditures, and leads to a higher basal metabolism.8

This study showed mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) that received Yerba mate had decreased food and water intake. 

Although the body weight in the HFD group increased, the weight gain in the Yerba mate treated group was significantly less than that of the HFD group who didn’t receive the mate.

It should also be noted that Yerba mate appears to have fewer adverse side effects than other natural weight loss supplements.9

Studies using different human groups have found positive effects of satiety and metabolism.10

Antibacterial Activity

An article published in 2018 found that the aqueous extracts of the stems and leaves of Ilex paraguariensis possess significant antibacterial activity. I found it fascinating because bacterial strains resistant to the antibiotics we typically use were not immune to the Yerba mate.11

This finding could lead to more effective antibiotics in the future. Bacterial resistance is a significant problem in healthcare today, so newer antibiotics with less resistance could save many lives.

Yerba Mate as a Performance Enhancer

A study performed on well-trained cyclists found Yerba mate increased fat oxidation at low-exercise intensities and improved performance in short time trials.12

Another study found YM ingestion reduced carbohydrate reliance during exercise and augmented fatty acid oxidation. 

This was true over a wide range of exercise intensities.13

The investigators concluded that the acute ingestion of YM before exercise increased fat metabolism during light and moderate exercise. No adverse effects on maximal performance were noted.

Adverse Effects of Yerba Mate

All medicinal products have precautions, warnings, and side effects associated with them. I generally use the natural medicines database by trc to research the adverse effects of the various nutraceuticals I study.

Yerba mate may increase the risk of various cancers when used in high doses or over a long period.

The other adverse effects are primarily the result of caffeine. Some of these effects include:

  • Hypertension
  • Tachycardia
  • Chest pain
  • Cardiac arrhythmia
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Gastric irritation
  • Osteoporosis
  • Insomnia
  • Anxiety
  • Agitation
  • Headache
  • Irritability
  • Depressed mood



I have recently started to enjoy Yerba mate. I only drink this occasionally but wanted to research its benefits. I was surprised to find it had promising antibacterial properties. It may also decrease plaque buildup in blood vessels reducing heart attack risk.

Athletes may benefit from its effect on fatty acid oxidation, improving athletic performance, and we all may benefit from its weight loss effects.

Diabetic patients may benefit from its effect on blood glucose levels but must be careful as many YM products contain added sugar.

According to the natural medicines database, this “tea” received a rating of “possibly safe” when used orally and appropriately over a short period.

As with anything, moderation is key. Consuming large doses of YM or long term exposure may increase cancer risk. To be honest, I believe it would be difficult to consume these quantities.

Most of the other adverse effects come from the caffeine content. If you have difficulty with coffee, this may not be the drink for you.

I have not experienced any side effects from Yerba mate. I enjoy the taste and find it very refreshing.

If you have any questions regarding this blog post, or anything related to medications or natural products, please send me an email. I am happy to get an answer for you,

Until next week, be happy, be healthy, and stay safe!

Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.



Disclosure:  This post may contain affiliate links, meaning, at no additional cost to you, I may earn a commission if you click on, or make a purchase through a third-party link.

7 Healthiest Water Flavoring Ideas to Try

If you have been following my blog, you know I have written posts on the importance of hydration and the negative consequences of consuming too much sugar as well as artificial sweeteners.

I have explained that it is best to drink eight, 8 oz. glasses of water daily.  This is the rule under normal conditions.  If you are sweating more than usual or out in the heat for extended periods, this amount should be increased accordingly.

Many of us get bored drinking plain water all day.  I decided to find some good water-flavoring ideas and put them in a post for your convenience.

This has been enjoyable because I have been able to try the different flavors.

Cucumber and Blueberry

This is one of my favorite combinations.  

  • 8 ounces water
  • 1/4 c. Blueberries
  • 1/4 Cucumber
Blueberries are loaded with antioxidants.  Cucumber is low in calories and high in fiber and also contains antioxidants.  This is a favorite of mine, as blueberries are my favorite fruit.

Cucumber, Lemon and Apple Detox Water

Besides its antioxidant properties, cucumber also acts as an anti-inflammatory.  Lemon adds flavor to the water as well and can help boost immunity.

  • 8 cups water
  • 1 small cucumber, sliced
  • 1 lemon, sliced
  • 1 apple, cored and sliced

Cucumber, Watermelon and Mint Infused Water

This flavor combination is a real treat!  The watermelon and mint add spark while the cucumber producer a mellow, soft flavor to the mix.

  • 8 cups water
  • 1 small cucumber, sliced
  • 1 cup cubed watermelon
  • Fresh mint to taste

Red Currant Infused Water

Red currants are high in flavonoids and vitamin B.  This can help protect body tissues and prevent arteriosclerosis and diabetes. Red currants taste like a raspberry, rhubarb mixture.

Cucumber, Lemon, Lime and Mint Infused Water

This is a very refreshing recipe.  Think of this as spa water.

  • 8 cups water
  • 1 lemon, sliced
  • 1 lime sliced
  • 1 small cucumber, sliced


Lavender and Lemon Infused Water

Lavender is known for its calming properties.  It also takes lemon water to another level.  Try this combination.

  • 1 lemon
  • 1 Tbsp dried lavender buds
  • 2 quarts cold water

Cucumber, Lemon, Lime, Berry and Mint Infused Water

Lastly, for the adventurous types out there.  Here is an infused water with many flavors.  Have fun with this one.  Try different amounts of the various ingredients and enjoy the results!

Michael Brown pictured with Final Thought written

Most of us don’t drink enough water.  The recommended intake is eight, 8 oz. glasses of water per day under normal conditions.  

If you become tired of drinking plain water, consider infusing it using some of the ingredients listed in this post.

If you are looking for a good fruit infuser water bottle, click here.

I would love to hear about the ideas you have for other infused water flavors.  I am always looking for new ways to keep the healthiest drink on the planet more tasty.

For the best 10 infusion pitchers to buy in 2020, click here.

Have a great summer, everyone.  Stay happy, healthy, and safe!

Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.



Disclosure:  This post may contain affiliate links, meaning, at no additional cost to you, I may earn a commission if you click on, or make a purchase through a third-party link.

Is Aspartame Sweetener Bad for You

What is aspartame?

Is it bad for you?

My favorite soft drink is Diet Coke. Diet Coke is sweetened by a substance called aspartame. I have been trying to improve every aspect of my life regarding health choices. One thing I plan to change is what I choose to drink. 

Not surprisingly, water is going to be my main drink going forward. Water can be flavored using fruit for a different taste. Stay tuned for a future blog post on different ways to enjoy the healthiest drink on the planet!  

Disclosure:  This post may contain affiliate links, meaning, at no additional cost to you, I may earn a commission if you click on, or make a purchase through a third-party link.

What is Aspartame?

Aspartame is an artificial sweetener marketed under the following names:

  • NutraSweetTMCanderelTM
  • EqualTM

This substance is found in over 6,000 food items and is consumed by millions of Americans daily.1





Aspartame is found in many diet soft drinks, chewing gum, and vitamin supplements. It is not a good sweetener for baking because it breaks down and loses most of its sweetness when heated.  

Aspartame is a dipeptide of two natural amino acids, L-aspartic acid, and L-phenylalanine. After ingested, aspartame is broken down into-

  • Aspartic acid
  • Phenylalanine
  • Methanol4
  • Formaldehyde5
  • Formic acid

Aspartame and your Health

Aspartame has been a subject of controversy for years. Many believe that this sweetener is hazardous to one’s health. We will take a look at some of the available studies.

Effects on the Brain

The metabolism of aspartame mentioned above may lead to the following effects on the brain.

  • Phenylalanine acts as a regulator of neurotransmission.6

  • Aspartic acid is an excitatory neurotransmitter 7

Studies have shown a decrease in the production of dopamine and serotonin following aspartame ingestion. 

This is believed to be caused by an increase in aspartic acid and phenylalanine.




We know that aspartame also increases the permeability of the blood-brain-barrier altering concentrations of some substances such as dopamine in the brain. This change in dopamine concentration may lead to the pathogenesis of some mental disorders.10

Other researchers have concluded that these adverse effects of aspartame only occur at very high concentrations not generally achieved by typical aspartame consumption.


A study published in April of 2014 tested the effects of high-aspartame meals (25 mg/kg/day) vs. low-aspartame meals (10 mg/kg/day) on spatial orientation, working memory, mood (irritability), depression and headaches.

This study was double-blind, and the subjects served as their own controls. They received either the high-aspartame diet or low-aspartame diet followed by a two-week washout period. During this washout period, they consumed their regular diet. After the washout period, they received the other aspartame diet (high or low).  

The treatment periods were eight days in length.

The results are shown in Table 1 below.



This study found that subjects showed weaker spatial orientation and an increased frequency of irritability and depression when consuming the high-aspartame diet 12

Another study by Walton et al. in 1993 also found high aspartame diets caused more irritability and depression. This study was not completed due to adverse reactions experienced by the study subjects.13


Aspartame and Cardiometabolic Health

An analysis of 7 trials (1003 subjects) was published in 2017. These subjects were obese, overweight, or hypertensive. This study found that artificial sweeteners, including aspartame, may be associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and cardiometabolic risk.14

More experimental studies are needed to compare different sweeteners with regard to BMI and cardiometabolic effects. At the current time, research does not support a benefit of artificial sweeteners for weight management.




Other Health Concerns Regarding Aspartame

Aspartame has been a controversial substance for many years. Here are some of the other risks reported with its use.

  • Lupus
  • Cancer
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Dizziness
  • Seizures
  • ADHD
  • Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

Some people have also reported headaches after ingesting aspartame. 

My recommendation for anyone suffering from headaches is to keep a journal. Keep track of what you eat and drink daily. When you have a headache, write down the time and severity in the journal.

Determine if patterns exist.

Are certain foods a possible trigger? 

If you are taking medications for psychosis or suffer from phenylketonuria, you should avoid aspartame.  

Please see my blog post on low glycemic sweeteners by clicking here. 

My research shows the most likely adverse effects resulting from aspartame consumption are weaker spatial orientation and an increased frequency of irritability and depression. These only seem to be a concern when consuming higher amounts of aspartame.  

Although aspartame has been blamed for many other negative health effects, the available research doesn’t support this.

I look at aspartame as a risk vs. benefit situation. 

Since there are other sweeteners available, I am going to limit my intake of aspartame. My goal will be to consume black coffee, water (flavored and plain), and AXIO.

I don’t feel the risk of consuming aspartame is currently worth the benefit.

As always, if you have any questions or comments, please let me know.

Have a great week, and be happy and healthy!

Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.



Low Glycemic Sugar Substitutes

Losing weight is something most of us are interested in doing. We are bombarded by advertisements for sugar-free and calorie-free products on a daily basis.  

Are sugar-free products better?

Are they healthy?

What are the best options to replace sucrose?

This post will explore some alternatives to table sugar.

What we are looking for is a substance that:

  • Contains very few if any calories or carbohydrates.
  • Is safe for human consumption.
  • Has either no effect, or a positive effect on blood sugar levels.
  • Does not cause unwanted side effects when consumed at reasonable doses.
  • Has research to support its safety.
  • Contains no hidden sources of carbohydrates.
  • Can be used in cooking. Does not decompose into simple sugars or become bitter or toxic when exposed to heat.



Sucrose is what we refer to as table sugar.  This is the substance that all other sweeteners are compared to.


Sucrose is known as a disaccharide because it is composed of two monosaccharides, glucose, and fructose.

This substance is a natural compound found in plants.


Sucrose is obtained mostly from sugarcane in hot climates and sugar beets in colder regions. Hot water is used to extract the sucrose, and this mixture is then concentrated into a syrup. The syrup is then crystallized to make table sugar.


One teaspoon of table sugar contains about 16 calories and 4 grams of carbohydrates. These are known as “empty calories” because they are very limited in their nutritional value and contain no vitamins or minerals.  

The glycemic index (GI) is a measure of how quickly a food increases blood sugar levels.


Foods with a low GI typically release glucose slowly and steadily, whereas those foods with a high GI release glucose into the bloodstream rapidly, causing a “spike” in blood glucose levels.


Spikes in blood glucose cause the body to release more insulin, which can lead to health problems over time. Some of these include metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and insulin resistance.


Those foods that contain fiber, fat, and or protein have a lower glycemic index because the body cannot digest the food as quickly.  

The glycemic load (GL) is a measure of the effect a serving of food will have on the blood sugar level.


The GL is obtained using the following equation:


Glycemic Load (GL) = Glycemic Index (GI) x Carbohydrate (g) per portion /100

A low GL = 1-10

Moderate GL = 11-19

High GL = greater than 19.


The glycemic load is significant because it takes into account the amount of food being consumed, which leads to a more accurate estimate of the effect of the food on blood sugar.

The table below lists GI and GL values for some common foods.


There are three main types of sweeteners.  

  • Natural Sweeteners
  • Sugar Alcohols
  • Artificial Sweeteners

Natural Sweeteners

Stevia, also known as the sugar leaf, is 100 to 300 times sweeter than table sugar. This natural sweetener has been used in South America for its sweetening properties for hundreds of years.1

Stevia is calorie-free. This is the sweetener I choose to use.


Stevia has some studies to suggest it may lower blood pressure.2



Another study has shown no significant change was seen in patients with mild hypertension.5 

Stevia is sweet but doesn’t taste much like sugar. It also has a bitter aftertaste, which some dislike.


Some individuals may suffer from digestive problems when using stevia.

Stevia: GI = 0, Net Carbs (per 100g) = 5, Calories (per 100g) = 20


Allulose is a sugar that resembles fruit sugar or fructose. This sugar is only about 70% as sweet as table sugar. Although not calorie-free, allulose provides about 0.4 calories per gram (g), which is much lower than sucrose. The body does absorb this sugar but does not metabolize it into glucose.


A 2018 study of 144 individuals with a BMI greater than or equal to 23 kg/m2 found allulose was able to reduce body weight in overweight or obese subjects. This study also stated that the effects are likely dose-dependent.6


Another study from 2015 suggested allulose may also have benefits for type 2 diabetes.7

Some studies suggest It may even have antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects, although more studies are needed to confirm this.


Allulose has no glycemic index or net carb count because it is excreted by the body unchanged.


This substance is more expensive than some other sweeteners and not as sweet as table sugar.

Allulose GI = 0, Net Carbs (Per 100g) = 0-5, Calories (Per 100g) = 20-40


Monk Fruit is a medicinal fruit from China.


It has been used as a digestive aid and in the treatment of the common cold.


Monk fruit sweetener is 100-250 times sweeter than sugar and contains no calories, carbohydrates, or sugars.


Like stevia, this product may leave a bitter aftertaste. The sweetness comes from mogrosides that are antioxidants separated from fresh-pressed juice during processing.


Monk fruit is more expensive than some other sweeteners but is a viable healthy option.

Monk fruit GI = 0, Net Carbs (Per 100g = 0-25, Calories (Per 100g) = 0-100





Tagatose is a monosaccharide that occurs in some fruits such as apples, oranges, and pineapple. It can also be found in sterilized milk.


This substance is about 92% as sweet as table sugar but only contains about 38% of the calories. This sugar has a minimal effect on insulin and blood glucose levels.


Tagatose contains more calories than some other sweeteners and is also more expensive than some.


Tagatose has also been shown to have some probiotic properties.

Tagatose GI = 3, Net Carbs (Per 100g) = 35, Calories (Per 100g) = 150


Inulin is a soluble fiber found in some plants. It is also a prebiotic, meaning it feeds beneficial bacteria in the gut.


Inulin has also been shown to improve the body’s ability to absorb calcium, which may lead to stronger bones and teeth.8


This sweetener is only 35% as sweet as sugar.  The good news is, inulin caramelizes like sugar and doesn’t have a bitter aftertaste.  The bad news is, it may cause gastrointestinal symptoms to become worse.


Another problem with inulin is that if heated above 275 degrees Fahrenheit, a portion of the molecule will break down into fructose.

Fructose will not spike blood sugar levels, but it does contain calories.

Inulin GI = 0, Net Carbs (Per 100g) = 1, Calories (Per 100g = 150


Sugar Alcohols

Sugar alcohols, or polyols, are substances that are hard for the body to metabolize and thus have less effect on blood sugar than table sugar. Since these are hard to digest, they are mostly broken down by bacteria in the large intestine. This can lead to gas and bloating, especially at higher doses.


These molecules are not sugars or alcohols.  They are carbohydrates that have a structure that resembles sugars and alcohol.  Besides providing a sweet taste to foods, sugar alcohols add bulk and texture and inhibit browning.


An advantage of sugar alcohols is that they are not acted on by bacteria in the mouth, and because of this, do not promote tooth decay.9


One of these substances, xylitol, has been found to inhibit bacteria.


There are many sugar alcohols. This post will focus on just three.


Xylitol (pictured above) is as sweet as table sugar and is found in fruits and vegetables.

This substance has 40% fewer calories than sugar.


Xylitol is great for your teeth because it starves harmful bacteria in the mouth and increases calcium absorption into the teeth. This leads to its widespread use as a sweetener in gums and toothpaste.


Please be aware that this sweetener is toxic to many animals, including dogs and cats, even in small doses.


Keep this substance and anything containing it away from your pets.


Xylitol may cause excessive gas and bloating especially at higher doses.

Xylitol GI = 13, Net Carbs (Per 100g) = 60, Calories (Per 100g) = 240


Erythritol is present in some fruits and vegetables. It is the sugar alcohol with the lowest calories and net carbs.


This sweetener also causes fewer GI complaints compared to the other sugar alcohols because it gets metabolized before reaching the colon.


Erythritol has been available as a sweetening agent since 1990.


It does produce a cooling sensation on the tongue, especially when used in large quantities.

Erythritol GI = 0, Net Carbs (Per 100g) = 5, Calories (Per 100g) = 20




Maltitol is commonly used as a sugar substitute because it tastes and bakes similarly to sugar with fewer calories.


It does have a higher glycemic index than the other sugar alcohols and can spike insulin levels.


I would advise against consuming products containing maltitol if you are trying to lose weight. The other problem is this sweetener tends to cause more bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhea when compared to erythritol and xylitol.

Maltitol GI = 36, Net Carbs (Per 100g) = 67, Calories (Per 100g) = 270

Artificial Sweeteners

Artificial sweeteners are the compounds synthetically produced to replace sugar. These are sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin.


Aspartame is contained in one of my favorite soft drinks, Diet Coke. Drinking this beverage is one of the few bad habits I have that affect my health. Let us take a look at these sweeteners.


Aspartame is probably the most studied artificial sweetener. This substance is 200 times sweeter than sucrose. If you consume sugar-free products, chances are you are being exposed to aspartame.  There have been reports of aspartame causing everything from headaches to cancer.


Aspartame is composed of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. These are both amino acids. When aspartame is metabolized in the body, a portion of it is converted to methanol. Methanol is toxic in large doses.


Those who have phenylketonuria (PKU) and those taking medications for schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease should avoid aspartame. Those with PKU already have too much phenylalanine in their blood. Aspartame is toxic to these individuals.


Aspartame may increase the risk of tardive dyskinesia in those receiving antipsychotic medications.

A study published in 2014, found rats fed a diet containing aspartame experienced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. This is thought to be due to its effect on the gut microbiota.10

Aspartame GI = 0, Net Carbs (Per 100g) = 85, Calories (Per 100g) = 352





Sucralose is 600 times sweeter than table sugar. This substance is very poorly absorbed by the body. It becomes unstable when heated and can release cancer-causing substances, so do not use it in cooking.


Notice that the GI for sucralose has a range. In its powdered form, sucralose has a higher GI than sucrose, which can lead to large insulin spikes.

Sucralose GI = 0-80, Net Carbs (Per 100g) = 0, Calories (Per 100g) = 0


Saccharin is one of the oldest sweeteners available. It is 400 times sweeter than sugar.  This sweetener is not as popular as it used to be due to the bad press it has received. It has been shown to cause cancer in animal models.


Since these studies can not be performed in humans, we are not sure of its cancer-causing potential.


There have also been studies that have shown saccharin, and other artificial sweeteners can cause glucose intolerance by altering the intestinal microbiota.11

Saccharin GI =variable, Net Carbs (Per 100g) =94, Calories (Per 100g) = 364


There were no surprises found while writing this post. Here are my recommendations:

  • Avoid artificial sweeteners. Although we don’t have concrete evidence that they are harmful, I believe the risks outweigh the benefits.
  • Xylitol is a good option for dental products because it increases calcium absorption into the teeth and decreases harmful bacteria.
  • Monk fruit is a reasonable option as its sweetness comes from antioxidant compounds.
  • Stevia is also a good choice, although it may produce a bitter aftertaste that some may not prefer. It also has a different taste than sucrose.
  • It is crucial to avoid high fructose corn syrup whenever possible. This is a highly processed sweetener that has been linked to heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity.

I plan to write an entire blog post on aspartame in the near future.  This sweetener is very popular and I want to give my readers a better understanding of the health effects of using it.

Please read your food labels and remember, it is always best to eat whole foods. Limit artificial and processed foods.

Drink plenty of water, at least eight, 8 oz. glasses per day and exercise for at least 30 minutes five times per week.  

Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.



Intermittent Fasting and Artificial Sweeteners, Bulletproof Coffee, Weight Loss, and More…

Is intermittent fasting (IF) good for you?

Does it work?

What are some tips for success?

My readers are aware that I have written about diets and nutrition in the past. Our family completed the Whole30 diet in October of 2019 and my wife and I were successful in sticking to the rules for the entire month. The kids couldn’t stick with it. They needed more carbohydrates and got very tired of stir fry’s and curry. Although we aren’t currently eating such a restrictive diet, much was learned during that month with regards to eating and how your body can feel differently when only whole foods are consumed.

Intermittent fasting (IF) was introduced to me by a pharmacist colleague a couple of years ago. He sent me some information via email and I decided to give it a try.

IF is a pattern of normal food intake combined with extended periods where little to no food is consumed. Restricting food intake to a time window of eight hours or less per day is also known as time-restricted feeding (TRF). As you can probably imagine, there are many ways to achieve this.

Alternate Day Fasting

During this plan, you can eat normally on even days and fast on odd days. During your fasting days you may drink non-calorie beverages such as coffee, tea or water. There are many books explaining this method. Probably the most popular is “The Every Other Day Diet” by Krista Varaday. The premise is you can eat all you want, half the time, and lose weight.

The 5:2 Diet

The 5:2 method involves eating normally for five days of the week and consuming only 500-600 calories on two consecutive days after that. I am unable to do this. Eating a few calories makes me hungry.

Lean Gains Protocol

This is also called the 16/8 method. This plan involves restricting your calorie intake to an eight hour period. In my opinion, this is a great place to start. Just pick an eight hour period during the day where you are allowed to eat, and fast for the rest of the day. You could eat from noon until 8:00 PM, for example.

The 20:4 Plan

This is the plan I follow. It is the most restrictive single day fast. This regimen allows for one meal per day. Many find this best for weight loss, ketone production, and mental sharpness. I do not recommend starting here, but you can work your way towards this goal. I suggest starting with the 16/8 method as mentioned above.

There are many more possibilities to choose from. Just google “intermittent fasting” and you will find many ideas. There are also several apps available for the iPhone to help you. Some of these include:

  • BodyFast Intermittent Fasting
  • Zero-Fasting Tracker
  • Simple: Fasting & Meal Tracker
  •  MyFast Intermittent Fasting

If you own an iPhone and want to try IF, I strongly suggest downloading one of these apps. It makes the process much easier. These apps also contain a ton of useful information on the subject.

I have been an “intermittent faster” my whole life. I very rarely eat breakfast because it tends to make me sluggish and hungry, and I find it causes unwanted GI symptoms, dizziness and increases my sugar cravings.

I have always read that you shouldn’t skip breakfast, but this strategy has never worked for my body. I have started using the intermittent fasting plan during the last couple of years where I only eat during a four hour window on weekdays. I do not do this on weekends because I find it too hard to accomplish.

I decided to write a post about the IFD because I wanted to report the available research to my readers. There are many benefits to this diet and I find it to be an effective method to keep my weight stable.

The Basis For Intermittent Fasting

It is no secret that, as a society, we overeat. Most of us eat at least three meals per day and snacks in between. This often leads to the consumption of too many calories predisposing our bodies to metabolic complications such as excessive visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Lack of exercise makes these conditions even worse. The truth is, we are perfectly capable of surviving by eating less food, less often. There are many ways to practice IF. The benefits of these diets include:

  • Depletion or reduction of glycogen stores.
  • Mobilization of fatty acids.
  • Maintaining blood glucose levels in the low-normal range.
  • Reduced leptin and elevation of adiponectin levels.




Behavioral effects are also possible and include increased alertness and improved mental acuity.4

Intermittent Fasting and Diabetes

The popularity of IF has revolved around losing or maintaining weight. This is what initially piqued my interest. It makes sense that if you eat for only a small portion of the day, you will likely consume less calories. Less calories means less weight. There are other benefits, however, which I have listed above. What do the studies say about IF and weight loss?

Most of the studies performed on intermittent fasting and weight loss are done during Ramadan. One such study, published in 2019, looked at the effects of intermittent fasting on individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS).5

Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, hypertension, abdominal obesity, and poor lipid profiles. Most countries have a 20-30% prevalence of MetS among their adult population.6

It is important to point out that there are three general approaches most commonly investigated in studies of fasting.

  • Dietary restriction – One or more macronutrients are restricted with or without a total calorie reduction.
  • Intermittent fasting – Whole-day fasting or time-restricted feeding (TRF).
  • Daily caloric restriction – cutting 20-40% of daily caloric intake.

The 2019 study cited above showed a significant positive association between weight loss and the number of fasting days. The reduction of fat and body weight were achieved during the Ramadan fast while retaining lean mass. The non-fasting group showed no changes in weight. The fasting group experienced a decrease in both daily calorie intake, and physical activity. This led to a weight loss of 1.5 kg. This loss was 76% fat mass, 17% body fluid loss, and only 6% protein loss. The loss of body fat occurring in this study is higher than that reported from calorie restriction alone.7

A meta-analysis was published in February of 2018 reviewing intermittent fasting interventions for treatment of overweight and obese adults.8

This analysis included 400 subjects ranging in age from 37 years to 49 years. All participants were overweight or obese with a BMI range of (26.0 kg/m2 to 35.6 kg/m2). The studies contained in this analysis used different methods of IF. All but one study used self-reporting through food diaries to monitor compliance to the various protocols.

This meta-analysis found that intermittent fasting is as effective as the current clinical practice utilized for weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. Only a few studies met criteria to be included in this analysis, and most participants were women. These studies were of short duration and follow-up was very poor. Compliance was measured almost exclusively by diaries obtained by the subjects. Due to these issues, the researchers concluded that there was insufficient evidence at this time to recommend routine use of IF for weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. I did consult my personal physician and his take was that IF likely not cause harm and may indeed lead to weight loss. He stated that many of his patients utilize IF, especially athletes.

What to Drink During Fasting Periods

A common question people ask is “what can I drink during the fasting period?” My suggestions are listed below. If you ask several people about this, you will get many different answers. Always remember that no two people are the same. Find a plan that works for you and stick to it!

1. Water – This is my number one choice. Water is very good for your body and you need to remain hydrated. You should drink plenty of water daily whether or not you are fasting. You may add lemon slices to the water if you desire.

2. Bulletproof Coffee – This is one of my favorites. There are different ways to make this but I just use black coffee and add MCT oil to it. Others use butter and some add butter and MCT oil. The MCT oil I use is pictured below. I only drink one cup of coffee per day that contains one tablespoonful of MCT oil because the oil contains saturated fat. This special coffee helps curb hunger. You can also try one of our keto supplements if you find you are getting hungry or are low on energy.

3. Apple Cider Vinegar – I occasionally add 1-2 tablespoons of apple cider vinegar to my water for taste and health reasons. I wrote an entire article on this. Click the link above to read more about the benefits.

4. Tea – Tea is fair game as long as you don’t add sugar. I also advise against artificial sweeteners (see below.)

Intermittent Fasting and Artificial Sweeteners

I do not recommend using any artificial sweeteners during IF. These products are not good for your body and, in many cases, can cause sugar cravings. This means no diet sodas or sweet coffee. At least one study showed that these substances actually lead to glucose intolerance by altering the intestinal micro biota.9

If you must utilize artificial sweeteners, I recommend Stevia. I just prefer the brand you use does not contain glucose or sugar alcohols.

Risks of Intermittent Fasting

  1. Dehydration.  Be sure to hydrate especially during your fasting periods10

2. Increased afternoon urine osmolality.

This can also be avoided by adequate hydration. Remember to drink plenty of water during the day.11

3. Increased cortisol levels.

Fasting causes stress to our bodies. This leads to a release of cortisol which is our primary stress hormone. This may lead to an increase in fat storage although, as stated above, studies show that IF actually decreases fat.12

4. Increased guilt.

Inability to stick to the fasting regimen may cause one to feel guilty. I don’t put much stake in this as any diet may have this effect.

5. Decreased alertness.

Even though IF is known to improve alertness and concentration in the short term, it is possible that if enough calories are not consumed, one may actually become less alert and fatigued. Dizziness may also result. This can be easily rectified by simply eating more calories during your eating window.

I have been using the 20:4 intermittent fasting plan off and on for a couple of years. For me it was a fairly easy transition as I rarely eat breakfast. I just had to train myself to skip lunch. It was difficult at first, but I found the bulletproof coffee and drinking a lot of water helped me get through the day. I also only do this during the work week so I eat whatever I desire on weekends. I do not lose weight on this diet unless I am exercising regularly, but I don’t gain weight, either. It is a perfect solution for me.

My recommendation is to also check with a physician prior to initiating a diet, especially if you have diabetes or take medications. You should have routine check-ups with your physician and you may discuss diets at that time. Although IF is not for everyone, I do believe it can help most people achieve weight loss safely.

Some other pointers are:

  • Be sure to have healthy food available to eat during your feeding period. You do not want to fill up on junk food and empty calories.
  • Stay hydrated. Drinking plenty of water will help you feel less hungry and keep you from getting headaches and becoming lethargic.
  • Have a plan. Try different approaches to IF and pick the one that is right for you. Remember, we are all different.
  • Utilize an iPhone IF app. There are many to choose from. These apps are great for tracking your food intake, weight, and they contain valuable information to help you succeed.

I hope you have gained something positive from this post. My goal is always to help my readers live a happy, healthy life. If you have any topics you would like covered or have any questions for me, please reach out by email. I am always here to help.

Have a great week!

Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.



Ornish vs Mediterranean Diet, Which is Better

What is the healthiest diet?


How can I achieve sustainable weight loss?


Is it possible to prevent, reverse or control type 2 diabetes with diet?


Those who have been following my blog know that I believe in the following key strategies to live a happy, healthy, healing lifestyle:


  • Eat whole foods
  • Exercise
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Get 7-8 hours of sleep per night
  • Control stress and anxiety
  • Spend as much time as possible with your happiness elements


This post will focus on the best diet to achieve weight loss and keep your body as healthy as possible.  Our family tried the Whole30 diet in October.  It was challenging for us all, but some major lessons were learned from the experience.  First, it is amazing how good you feel when crappy foods are eliminated from your diet.  Your thoughts are clear, your energy level improves, and you feel better in general.  Secondly, your skin improves, you look healthier, and sugar cravings disappear.  Although this diet is hard to continue indefinitely based on its restrictions, I do recommend trying it to get an idea of how the food you eat effects your life.


Let’s look at two different diets that may help you.

Dean Ornish’s Spectrum Diet

Dr. Dean Ornish has created a program which is similar to what I believe will lead to a healthier you.  His program claims to be able to reverse heart disease, diabetes, prostate cancer, and lead to weight loss.  Dr. Ornish believes that foods are neither good nor bad, but some are healthier than others.  He believes eating more of the healthy foods such as


  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Whole grains
  • Nonfat dairy
  • Fats that contain omega 3 fatty acids
  • Legumes
  • Soy products
  • Egg whites


can have anti-aging, anti-cancer, and anti-heart disease effects.  Like me, Dr. Ornish emphasizes whole foods.  Processed foods should be limited.  He believes eating mostly plants in their natural form will lead to better health.


Ornish’s diet does not restrict calories unless weight loss is a goal.  He believes in small frequent meals throughout the day which maintain energy levels and controls hunger.


This diet limits the following “bad” carbs


  • Sugar
  • Concentrated sweeteners
  • White flour
  • White rice
  • Refined carbohydrates


Added sugars such as agave, honey, white or brown sugar, maple syrup and refined carbohydrates are limited to 2 servings per day. 


Alcohol can be consumed in limited quantities, but is not encouraged and is limited to one serving per day or


  • 5 ounces liquor
  • 4 ounces wine
  • 12 ounces beer


The Ornish diet recommends 4 grams of good fats daily.  These include


  • Fish oil
  • Flax seed oil
  • Nuts
  • Seeds
  • Plankton based omega-3 fatty acids


Limit calories from fats to 10% or less.  This diet achieves this by not adding fats, oils, avocados, coconut, or olives to the mostly plant-based diet.  The fat will come naturally from grains, vegetables, soy, fruit, legumes, and beans.


Cholesterol is limited to 10 mg or less per day.  Non-fat dairy products are optional but should be limited to 2 servings per day.  Alternatives such as soy milk are preferred as they are rich in healthy nutrients and are cholesterol-free.


Since nuts contain large amounts of fat, serving sizes are limited.  Three servings of the following types of nuts are recommended.  These specific types contain antioxidants, phytochemicals, and polyphenols which convey cardiovascular benefits.


  • 5 tsp pumpkin seeds
  • 6 peanuts
  • 3 pecan halves
  • 1 whole walnut
  • 5 almonds
  • 9 pistachios
  • 2 cashews
  • 5 tsp flax seeds, ground
  • 2 tsp chia seeds or sunflower seeds


Low fat packaged foods are not encouraged, but optional.  Remember, whole foods are preferred.




Protein, obtained mostly from plants, is encouraged by the Ornish diet.  Examples include.

  • Beans
  • Legumes
  • Tofu
  • Tempeh
  • Egg Whites
  • Non-fat yogurt
  • Non-fat cheese

Other Recommendations

Flavoring foods with herbs, spices, vinegar, and citrus fruits is preferred over salt.  If you are a coffee drinker, limit coffee to one cup per day, or two cups decaf or black or green tea.  Supplements may be taken as well.  Dr. Ornish recommends a low-dose multivitamin and mineral supplement with vitamin B-12, fish oil, and calcium supplements if directed by a physician.

All information regarding the Ornish diet was obtained directly from his website at:



The Mediterranean Diet

The Mediterranean Diet is a way of eating in countries that surround the Mediterranean.  The basic guidelines are as follows.

Foods to eat daily:

  • Whole grains
  • Beans
  • Spices
  • Healthy fats
  • Herbs
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Nuts

To be consumed twice a week:

  • Fish
  • Seafood

Moderate portions of:

  • Dairy products
  • Eggs
  • Poultry (occasional)

Foods to consume infrequently:

  • Red meats
  • Sweets

There are many websites devoted to a Mediterranean diet and lifestyle.  One of my favorites is http://www.oldwayspt.org

This pyramid is found on that site.  This gives a visual explanation of what I have written above.

Why the Mediterranean Diet?

Studies have shown that this diet achieves better results than other diets in many areas:

  1. A 50% lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared to low fat diets.1


  1. Lower blood sugars in type 3 diabetics compared to other diets.2


  1. More effective for sustainable weight loss.4


  1. Lower rates of cancer, dementia, heart disease, stroke, and overall dementia.6

  1. More favorable cholesterol, blood sugar and inflammation levels compared to low fat diets.


It is important to realize that what you actually eat depends on your situation and what you are trying to achieve.  The above Mediterranean diet pyramid shows what to eat in general. 

Since most are likely reading this because they want to lose weight, here are some pointers.  Remember, if you are at your goal weight, just eat according to the pyramid above.

Try to stop eating and drinking sweet foods and beverages

This includes those with artificial sweeteners.  Even fruit juices should be avoided.  These items are high in empty calories and can spike insulin levels.  If you refrain from eating sweets, your cravings for them will decrease.  I noticed when on the Whole30 diet that fruits will also start to taste much sweeter and become more enjoyable to consume.

Avoid grains, even whole grains. 

If you want to lose weight, or are having trouble controlling blood sugar, avoiding all grains is important.  Grains contain high levels of carbohydrates.  Grains fit into three broad categories.

     Highly-refined grains

Any foods made with white, wheat or enriched flour.  Some examples include bagels, focaccia bread, pizza, pancakes, pastries, donuts, cookies, chips, pretzels etc.  White rice, tortillas, most granola bars, and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals also fit into this category.  Highly refined grains should ALWAYS be avoided.

     Moderately-processed whole grains

These foods are not as processed as the highly refined carbs but contain rapidly-metabolized starches which spike blood sugar levels much like their highly-refined counterparts. Examples in this category include whole grain versions of pastas, crackers, breads, couscous, brown rice cakes, puffed grain cereals, muesli, and granola.  People at goal weight without diabetes, high triglycerides, or insulin resistance can eat moderately-processed whole grains in limited quantities.

     Intact whole grains

These are grain products that have not been processed.  Examples include whole unpearled barley, wheat and rye berries, oat groats, brown rice and millet.  These are the healthiest grains available but, again, should only be eaten by those who are at goal weight, don’t suffer from diabetes, insulin resistance, or high triglyceridemia.

Eat nine servings of whole fruits and vegetables daily but eat the vegetables first

Most frozen vegetables are almost as good as the fresh variety.  Be sure to eat more vegetables than fruit and eat vegetables with every meal, even breakfast.  Eat the vegetables whole instead of juicing them.  Steer away from starchy vegetables such as potatoes.  Keep serving sizes of yams, carrots and sweet potatoes small.

All fruit is not created equal.

The best fruits to eat are apples, pears, berries and citrus fruits.  Dried fruits should be avoided as they contain concentrated sugars.  The only exception is dried prunes which have a lower glycemic load.  Higher sugar fruits such as bananas, pineapple, grapes and mangoes should be consumed in moderation.

Eat beans and legumes regularly

These are best prepared from the dry versions.  Be careful when using canned beans.  Many contain added sugars and fat.  Beans and legumes add vegetable protein to the diet and have less of an impact on weight gain and blood sugar than whole grains.

Try to eat good fat, protein and fiber with each meal and snack

This has a couple of benefits.  First, blood sugar will rise more slowly and increase satisfaction.  Secondly, combining these leads to a longer digestion time which curbs hunger. 

Don’t skip meals. 

I know intermittent fasting is currently popular and I like to practice it myself.  Eating a good breakfast and small, frequent meals has been shown to help with weight loss.

Eat unsweetened cultured dairy products. 

Some studies have shown that eating dairy reduces diabetes and obesity risk.  It is also better to choose whole or 2% milk products instead of the low-fat or non-fat variety.  Eating aged cheeses is preferable to drinking milk.  Kefir and yogurt can be a great source of microorganisms (probiotics), calcium and protein.  It is always best to consume plain yogurt and sweeten it yourself.  I like to use blueberries, raspberries and blackberries for this purpose.

Always read food labels. 

Don’t fall for marketing slogans such as “healthy” or “low-fat.”  Avoid packaged foods that contain added sugar, refined grains and bad fats.  Remember, it is always best to eat whole foods whenever possible.  If it doesn’t come with a label, it is probably much healthier for your body.

Plan ahead. 

Often we make poor choices when in a hurry or when we haven’t purchased the correct ingredients for healthy meals.  Stay away from fast food and limit trips to restaurants. 


My readers are probably tired of hearing this but it is probably the most important key to health, happiness and weight loss.  Be active, take the stairs, park further from your destination and walk.  There are many ways to get exercise, you don’t necessarily have to live at the gym to accomplish this.

Get enough sleep. 

This is another thing that comes up over and over in my posts.  Lack of sleep puts you at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes.

Let's Compare the Two Diets

Now that we have explored these two diets, we can compare them.  They are actually not that much different.  They both rely on fruits and vegetables as the primary food source and both prefer you eat the “whole” versions of these.  They both restrict refined sugars, processed foods, and unhealthy carbohydrates.

  The Ornish diet allows 2 servings of “bad carbs” daily whereas the Mediterranean diet advocates consuming them as a treat or on special occasions. 

Fat consumption in the Ornish diet is only 10% of the daily caloric intake whereas the Mediteranean diet allows for approximately 29% fat on a daily basis. 

Every physician I have consulted regarding diets has recommended the Mediterranean diet over all others.  The primary reason for this is the large quantity of clinical data available to support it for heart disease, diabetes treatment and prevention as well as the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Dementia.  The prevention of dementia is of upmost importance to me as I work on a hospital unit that cares for these patients.  This disease is devastating for both the patient as well as the family and care-givers.  Anything I can do to prevent this disease is worth the effort.

U.S. News and World Report ranked 35 diets and ranked the Mediteranean diet #1 and the Ornish diet #9. 


This isn’t surprising considering the evidence available.  The main complaint surrounding the Ornish diet was the finding that the fat limitation made the diet hard to adhere to.  Nevertheless, this diet is very good for your heart and is also supported by quality evidence.  I see no problem following this diet if you are able to stick to it.  You will likely lose weight and feel great.  It follows all of my “rules” which are explained at the beginning of this post. 

I plan to stick with the Mediterranean diet for now.  My main reason for this is the evidence supporting its effect on the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.  I have no problem recommending the Ornish diet as well.  I have researched it and find it to be a great alternative for weight loss.  I recommend you take a look at both and make your decision based on what you can maintain.  A diet only works if you are able to stay on it.

As always, if you have any questions or comments positive or negative, please let me know.  I would also love to hear topics you are interested in reading about.  The goal is to keep you informed about anything that supports a happy, healthy, healing lifestyle! 

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Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.



14 Surprising Berberine Uses

The newest supplement available in the Sunshine Store is berberine. We chose to add this product based on the evidence available on its usefulness. As you will learn from this article, berberine may be useful for a variety of health-related conditions. It is one of the few herbal supplements that can have similar effects on the body as prescription medications.

Berberine has been used in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years. This yellow, bitter alkaloid is found in the roots, bark, and rhizomes of plants such as Oregon grape, goldenseal, European barberry, and tree turmeric, among others.  

What is berberine used for?

Is it safe?

Are there drug interactions?

As mentioned above, berberine has a variety of uses. Some of the most popular are listed below.

Berberine for Diabetes

Berberine has been shown to have a positive effect on diabetes in several studies. 

Some of these effects are listed below.

Taking 500mg of berberine twice daily for three months in patients with type 2 diabetes may reduce glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), post-prandial glucose (PPG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG).1

Taking berberine 500mg two to three times daily for two to three months works as well as metformin two to three times a day or rosiglitazone 4mg daily in the regulation of glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetics.



Berberine for Hypertension

Hypertension is a growing problem. Approximately one million visits to emergency departments listed hypertension as the primary diagnosis in 2016.



This condition often does not have symptoms associated with it and can go unnoticed for years. 

Hypertension can damage your arteries, heart, kidneys, eyes, and brain. It may lead to stroke, dementia, kidney failure, and blindness.

A meta-analysis showed that combining berberine with amlodipine is more effective at reducing blood pressure than taking amlodipine alone.


Source: 5

Berberine for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

There have been studies examining the use of berberine in women with PCOS who were attempting to become pregnant. Although there are mixed results, one study showed that 500mg of oral berberine taken three times daily for three months before IVF increased pregnancy and live birth rate. These results were similar to those obtained when taking oral metformin 500mg three times daily for three months before IVF.


Berberine for Hyperlipidemia

Meta-analyses show that berberine may reduce total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and LDL (bad) cholesterol. 

It can also increase HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also leads to a more significant reduction in TC and LDL when combined with lipid-lowering medications.







Berberine may also be useful for the following conditions, although less quality evidence is available to support its use for these.

Congestive heart failure (CHF) – May reduce premature ventricular contractions and lower mortality.

Burns – As an ointment in combination with beta-sitosterol.



Coronary heart disease (CHD) – See hyperlipidemia above.

Diarrhea – May be effective for diarrhea caused by E. coli.


Glaucoma – As eyedrops in combination with tetrahydrozoline.


Hepatitis B and C – Berberine decreases triglycerides and blood glucose. It also reduces markers of liver damage, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT).


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) – May reduce the frequency of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and defecation frequency when compared to placebo.


Symptoms of menopause – When taking berberine along with soy isoflavones, vasomotor symptoms in menopausal women may be decreased when compared to calcium plus vitamin D administration.


Obesity – Berberine has been shown to decrease weight by 2.3 kg (~5 lbs) in obese patients compared with a control group when ingested for twelve weeks.


Berberine interactions with Drugs:

Drugs used to treat diabetes – Do not use berberine with antidiabetic medications. There is substantial clinical evidence suggesting this combination increases the risk of hypoglycemia. Berberine should not be used with any drug that lowers blood sugar. 

This includes insulin as well as other oral and injectable diabetes medications.






Amlodipine and other drugs for high blood pressure – Combining berberine with amlodipine may result in a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.


This effect may also occur with other antihypertensive medications.

Anticoagulants – Since berberine may inhibit platelet aggregation, caution should be used when combining it with antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications. 

The risk of bleeding may be increased.




Cyclosporine – Do not combine berberine with cyclosporine. This combination may result in an increased level and increased adverse effects of cyclosporine.






Drugs that may cause sedation – Use caution when combining berberine with medications that produce sedation. 

This combination may lead to an increase in sedative effects. Some examples of sedative agents include.

  • Benzodiazepines
  • Narcotics
  • Barbiturates
  • Sedating antihistamines such as diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine
  • Anticonvulsants

There are other sedating medications, please contact your physician or pharmacist or send me a message to me for clarification.

Medications metabolized by Cytochrome P450 – There are several agents in this category. Below is a shortlist but again, if you have questions about what you are taking, please consult a physician or pharmacist, or simply shoot me an email.


Ibuprofen (Motrin) – May increase ibuprofen levels.

Losartan (Cozaar) – May decrease therapeutic effects of losartan.

Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, Delsym, others) – May increase dextromethorphan levels leading to drowsiness, irritability, and confusion.

Lovastatin (Mevacor) – May increase lovastatin levels.

Sildenafil (Viagra) – May increase sildenafil levels.

Tacrolimus – There has been at least one case report of berberine, causing an increased serum creatinine and tacrolimus level in a 16-year-old patient with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.


Patients who take berberine along with tacrolimus should have drug levels checked as tacrolimus dose adjustment may be necessary.

Safety of Berberine in Pregnancy and Lactation

Berberine should NOT be used in pregnant or lactating women. Berberine is believed to cross the placenta and may cause kernicterus and harm the fetus. Berberine may also be secreted into breast milk when taken orally, so it should not be used by breastfeeding mothers.


Side Effects of Berberine

Although berberine is generally well tolerated, the following side effects were the most commonly reported during research studies.

  • diarrhea
  • constipation
  • abdominal pain
  • abdominal distention
  • vomiting
  • flatulence

Berberine is a substance that has been used in other countries for its health benefits for thousands of years. I became interested in it while reading a book I recently purchased on nutraceutical preparation. This herbal product has the best evidence for its use in diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and polycystic ovary syndrome. It can also be effective for several other ailments described above.


Berberine should never be used in children or pregnant or breast-feeding mothers. There is some evidence that it may be harmful to the fetus as well as small children. As a pharmacist, I believe in using herbs and medications in pregnancy or children only when absolutely necessary. The risk is just too substantial.


Berberine, along with turmeric and ashwagandha, has effects on the body that can rival prescription medications. It can be beneficial for those who have diabetes, PCOS, or obesity. It is generally well-tolerated and is now available in the Sunshine Store for purchase. 


Give it a try and let me know what you think.

Always remember to take care of yourself, eat whole foods, drink plenty of water, exercise, and get adequate sleep. These can significantly help in your quest for happiness.



Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.



Garcinia Cambogia Medication Interactions, Contraindications, Safety, Effectiveness and Use in Pregnancy and Lactation.

Disclosure:  This post may contain affiliate links, meaning, at no additional cost to you, I may earn a commission if you click on, or make a purchase through a third-party link.

Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind) is a fruit tree found in the evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of southwest India. The fruit of this tree resembles a small pumpkin and comes in a red, orange, or yellow variety. This fruit ripens during the rainy season, and the rind contains large amounts of hydroxycitric acid (HCA). The dried fruit rinds have been used for centuries as a flavoring agent.  


In Ayurvedic medicine, Garcinia is used to promote general health. It has also been used for rheumatism and bowel symptoms — an oral rinse containing G. cambogia has been used by veterinarians to treat mouth diseases in cattle.


HCA, which is related to citric acid, is a common ingredient in weight loss products. G. cambogia is available as a weight-loss supplement, either alone or mixed with other ingredients.   


Garcinia Cambogia Dose

Doses of Garcinia cambogia extract in clinical trials ranged from 1500 to 4667 mg per day. The supplement offered by Sunshine Nutraceuticals contains 700 mg Garcinia cambogia extract, and the recommended dose is one capsule by mouth twice daily 20-30 minutes before a meal with eight ounces of water.

Garcia Cambogia Side Effects

Side effects of Garcinia Cambogia are generally mild and include:

  • Dry mouth
  • Headache
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea

Since Garcinia Cambogia is not centrally active, it should not cause anxiety, hypertension, or problems with sleep. 

Garcinia Cambogia in Pregnancy and Lactation

In my professional opinion, Garcinia cambogia should not be used by pregnant women or those who are breast-feeding. We do not have sufficient evidence to assure its safety; therefore, the risks outweigh the benefits.


Garcinia Cambogia Medication Interactions

Antidepressant Drugs and Serotonergic drugs

There has been a case report of serotonin syndrome being caused by a combination of Garcinia extract and escitalopram (Lexapro). The patient was re-challenged with sertraline (Zoloft) and again experienced serotonin syndrome.1

For this reason, caution should be exercised when taking G. Cambogia with any antidepressant medication. Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome.  These include:

  • Headache
  • Agitation
  • Restlessness
  • Confusion
  • Shivering
  • Increased heart rate
  • High blood pressure
  • Dilated pupils
  • Loss of muscle coordination
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Muscle Twitching
  • Heavy sweating
  • Diarrhea
  • Goose bumps

Serotonin syndrome may also occur when G. Cambogia is taken with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as:

  • Tramadol (Ultram)
  • Pentazocine (Talwin)
  • Dextromethorphan (present in some OTC cough and cold preparations) 

Anti-diabetic agents

G. cambogia may increase the hypoglycemic effects of anti-diabetic agents. It is suggested that blood sugars be closely monitored when using both Garcinia and anti-diabetic medications. 

Statins and other hepatotoxic medications

There was a case report of rhabdomyolysis being caused following the ingestion of an herbal medicine containing G. Cambogia.2Caution is recommended when administering statins with other medications which may cause rhabdomyolysis.

Use caution when combining Garcinia with other drugs that negatively affect the liver. Some examples include

  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
  • Amiodarone (Cordarone)
  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
  • Isoniazid (INH)
  • Methotrexate (Rheumatrex)

Safety of Garcinia Cambogia

According to the TRC Natural Medicines Research Collaboration, Garcinia Cambogia gets a “possibly unsafe” grade. This is due to numerous case reports of liver toxicity. Most of these reports were the result of combination products that included G. Cambogia as one of the ingredients. There were at least two reports where the patient was taking Garcinia alone. Although the casualty was likely or probable, this is still concerning.


Effectiveness of Garcinia Cambogia


There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of Garcinia on treating obesity. Some studies show a significant weight loss while others do not. As mentioned in some of my previous posts, I prefer to consult meta-analyses when available. One such study was published by Onakpoya, et al in 2011 in the Journal of Obesity. 


The investigators of this meta-analysis did not believe the studies were of sufficient length to assess the effects of HCA on body weight. These studies ranged from two to twelve weeks. There were also different strains of Garcinia used in the studies. We are unsure what impact this might have on bioavailability. 


Finally, there was a difference in caloric intake in the various studies. 


Calories eaten ranged from 1,000 kcal, to as high as 3,009 kcal per day. This would certainly have an impact on weight loss.


The conclusion of this meta-analysis was that Garcinia extracts generate weight loss on the short term. 


They point out that the effect is small, and is not statistically significant when only rigorous random controlled trials are considered.3

Garcinia Cambogia Contraindications

The only known contraindication at this time, according to Lexicomp (accessed 1/12/2020), is a known allergy or hypersensitivity to any components of Garcinia Cambogia.

After researching Garcinia cambogia, many questions remain. 

Can this supplement be effective for weight loss long-term?

Does Garcinia cambogia cause liver damage or contribute to increased liver enzymes in some patients?

Is this supplement safe and effective?

The answers to the above questions cannot be answered until new research is available.  The current studies were of insufficient length and not well designed.  The liver damage side effect must be examined more closely before I can recommend starting this supplement for weight loss.

As I have explained in the past, the best way to lose weight is to eat whole foods, avoid fast food, drink plenty of water, and exercise.  You will feel substantially better if you follow these simple rules.  Supplements can help reduce hunger but exercise and proper food intake will get you much better results. 

At this time, my recommendation is to use Garcinia cambogia only if you have had success with it in the past.  If you have had no negative effects and have lost weight, it may be a reasonable option.


I will continue to research this supplement.  As new research is available, I will decide whether to keep it, or remove it from our product line.

If you want a safer alternative, I recommend our Keto Ultra supplement.  This contains raspberry ketones, African mango, green tea extract, caffeine, apple cider vinegar, kelp and grape seed extract.  You can order this supplement below.

Our goal is to give our readers the best information available to live a happy, healthy lifestyle.  Sometimes, the information I present to you will not be positive.  I want to remain unbiased with regard to the products I offer for sale.  If you have any questions, please click on the link next to my picture below to send a message.  I will respond!

Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.



The Cyclical Ketogenic Diet and Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) Salts

The ketogenic diet is one of the most popular weight-loss strategies today because those who stay on the diet are able to lose weight and keep it off.   It works by limiting carbohydrates.  The traditional ketogenic diet consists of approximately 75% of calories as fat, 20% as protein, and only 5% carbohydrates.  This results in a daily carbohydrate intake of around 50 grams.  With the amount of carbs being limited, the body becomes more efficient at breaking down fat into ketones for energy.

The body uses two main sources of fuel; glucose and ketones.  Glucose is obtained when the body breaks down carbohydrates including sugars.  The energy obtained from glucose makes one feel energetic initially but often leads to “crashing” soon after, causing hunger and weakness.  If more carbohydrates are ingested than can be used by the body, the excess is stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver.  When glycogen stores are full, the excess glucose is stored as fat.

If there isn’t enough glycogen or glucose available to provide energy, ketones are utilized.  This energy source is steadier and doesn’t lead to cravings or the crash that often occurs with glucose.   The traditional ketogenic diet is not without adverse effects.  Two of these side effects are discussed below.


The Keto Flu

The keto flu can happen during the first couple weeks of starting the diet.  This is your body’s response to changing from glucose to ketones for energy.  The keto flu symptoms are:

  • Nausea
  • Stomach cramps
  • Chills
  • Muscle cramps or aches
  • Irritability
  • Sore throat
  • Poor sleep
  • Trouble concentrating


These symptoms typically start twenty-four to forty-eight hours after beginning the diet.  The more your diet was previously high in refined sugars and carbohydrates, the more severe these symptoms will likely be.

Keto Breath

Another common side effect of the keto diet is keto breath.  This “bad breath” symptom will be experience by most people who put their body into ketosis.   It can occur during the first week and is the result of acetone being released from the body.  This side effect is often accompanied by a metallic taste in the mouth and should go away when the body becomes accustomed to being in ketosis. Until this happens, there are some steps that can be taken to help with this pesky problem.

  • Carry Breath Mints: You may not be able to get rid of the acetone on your breath, but you can mask it with breath mints. Sugar-free mints are preferred.
  • Drink More Water: Drinking more water causes more ketones to be released from the body in the urine resulting in less elimination by breathing. Drinking water has other health benefits as well that I have discussed in previous posts.
  • Brush Teeth Frequently: This is another simple strategy to help keep your breath fresh.

The Cyclical Ketogenic Diet (CKD)

The cyclical ketogenic diet is a variation of the ketogenic diet where you follow the 50 gm/day carb diet for 5-6 days per week followed by a higher carb diet for 1-2 days.  This variation is a popular tactic for those trying to build muscle and improve exercise performance as the higher carb days or “refeeding days” replete glucose reserves.  This is important as glycogen is what the body uses for energy during workouts.  These “carbohydrate days” will give your body the glucose it needs during workouts while reaping the benefits of ketosis.

This type of diet has many benefits.  If you don’t ever get to eat carbohydrates, you may feel deprived of some of your favorite tasting food.  The CKD allows you to enjoy these foods one or two days per week.  The body needs carbohydrates to function properly and carb loading keeps the body functioning smoothly. 

The microbiome of the gut will be healthier if you eat more carbs.  This leads to a better functioning gut-brain axis which provides several benefits.   

The keto flu and keto breath are usually less severe with CKD. 

It is important to be selective in the carbohydrates you consume during the CKG.  Try to eat fruit, lentils, sweet potatoes, rice and oatmeal, limiting fat intake during your carbohydrate days.  This is important as the body is only able to utilize one energy source at a time.  Since glucose is the preferred energy source, excess fat consumed during these days will be stored as body fat.  The goal should be to burn all of the glycogen consumed during the refeeding days so ketones are used as energy the rest of the week.


One Benefit of CKD - A Higher Level of Anabolic Hormones



Testosterone is one of the most important hormones for muscle growth.  A high fat diet increases the concentration of testosterone in the blood.  It has been shown that diets with less than 20% fats can inhibit testosterone production.  This is especially true when compared to diets containing 40% fat. 1

A study by Wang et al. showed a low-fat diet decreased testosterone levels by 12%. 2

A low fat diet decreases the level of testosterone in the bloodstream which, in turn, may lead to a decrease in muscle-building capability.


Growth Hormone

Growth hormone (GH) also known as somatotropin or human growth hormone (HGH), stimulates growth and the reproduction and regeneration of cells.  Low levels of this hormone may increase risk of disease and increase body fat. 3

Carbohydrates and sugar increase insulin levels.  More insulin leads to less HGH so reducing carbohydrates in the diet may help to increase human growth hormone. 4



Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)

The deficiency of Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is associated with metabolic syndrome.  Metabolic syndrome leads to insulin resistance, increased glucose levels, impaired lipid profile, cardiovascular disease and obesity.  All of these effects are undesirable.  The ketogenic diet increases IGF-1 which may lessen the chances of contracting metabolic syndrome and the negative effects described above. 6

A Great Supplement For Keto Dieters

If there isn’t enough glycogen or glucose available to provide energy, ketones are utilized.  This happens even when we consume a regular diet during the night as we sleep.  As mentioned above, this energy source is steadier and doesn’t lead to cravings or the crash that often occurs with glucose.  There are three ketone bodies.  These are acetoacetate, BHB, and acetone.   Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a great energy source when eating a ketogenic diet.  When glucose is limited, mental concentration can be negatively affected. 7

BHB salt supplements can be used when energy levels are low while on the ketogenic diet. 

Michael Brown pictured with Final Thought written

The ketogenic diet has become very popular.  This diet works by forcing the body to break down fat for energy.  For those who work out, the cyclical ketogenic diet is likely a better option.  This diet allows for one to two days per week of carbohydrate loading to build up glycogen stores for quick energy supply during physical exertion.  It is important to eat “clean” carbohydrates rather than junk food.  Remember when carb loading to avoid too many fat calories because the body can only utilize one energy source at a time.  Finally, consider utilizing BHB salts for energy during the beginning of your keto diet and anytime you feel sluggish.  This supplement can get you over the hump without resorting to eating too many carbohydrates.  If you have any questions regarding the ketogenic or cyclical ketogenic diet, please feel free to contact me.  If I don’t know the answer to your question, I will research it and get back to you as soon as possible.  Thank you for reading my post.


Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.



My Whole30 Summary

Disclosure:  This post may contain affiliate links, meaning, at no additional cost to you, I may earn a commission if you click on, or make a purchase through a third-party link.

What is the Whole30?
Should I try it?
Is it hard?
Will I lose weight?

I discovered the Whole30 while researching the best body detox plans for a recent blog post I was writing. I don’t like to make recommendations to my audience that I am not willing to try myself. That being said, I started the thirty-day program on October 15th, 2019. I was well aware that Halloween would be a bummer (no candy), but I wanted to do this. I set up a Google Doc on my phone and kept notes of what I ate and how I felt during the program. My starting weight was 188 pounds.

What is the Whole30

The Whole30 was created in 2009 by Melissa Hartwig. This is not a diet or a test of willpower, it’s a program designed to change the way you think about food. The basic premise is simple; some foods are not good for your body. Of course, many of these are the foods we crave the most. Eliminating all the “unhealthy” foods removes toxins from your body. Saying goodbye to the “sugar monster” is difficult at first, but as you will see, changes the way you feel. No fast food, no added sugar or sugar substitutes, and no cheese! This program changed the way I plan to eat going forward.

I have to admit I was skeptical.

What you will read in this post is what I went through during the thirty days. Some days were difficult. There was bickering at the dinner table. The kids missed “their food”. Don’t send me messages about child abuse, I did not make them stick to the program, but I didn’t make fancy Mexican and Italian dishes, either. Ashley looked at me one night and said, “I just want my food back”. These kids are not fans of fast food or restaurants, except sushi. They love daddy’s cooking.

Whole30 Rules

The rules seem very simple at first. The problem is there are almost no processed foods that don’t contain an ingredient you can’t have. You are much better off only eating fresh organic food. Fruits and vegetables will become your best friend. Here are the rules:

  • No added sugar or sugar substitutes of any kind. This includes honey and agave nectar.
  • No alcohol! This was the most natural rule for me.
  • No grains. No wheat, corn, rice, barley, oats, millet, quinoa, etc. This covers a lot of foods. I suggest referring to the Whole30 book for a complete list.
  • No Legumes. No beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils, or peanuts. That means no peanut butter. You can easily substitute almond butter or cashew butter — no soy of any kind or tofu, edamame, or tempeh. Soy sneaks into products almost as often as added sugar. Learn to read the labels.
  • No dairy. Another crushing blow to me. No cheese, milk, cream cheese, or sour cream. You can eat clarified butter, but I skipped it. I used olive oil and coconut oil for all of my cooking, a change I plan to continue.
  • No carrageenan, MSG, or added sulfites. Careful with dried fruits and sausage, be sure there are no sulfites added.
  • No junk foods or baked goods made with improved ingredients. This means you can’t make pancakes out of coconut flour. I will give you some suggestions for sweet snacks later in the post.
  • Do not weigh or measure yourself in any way during the program. Just before and after. This is to keep you from concentrating on your weight and missing other benefits.

Preparing for the Whole30

I am going to stress this step. Be sure you have an adequate supply of “Whole30 compliant” food in your house before you start. Do not try to wing it! I suggest stocking up on fresh fruits and vegetables, almonds, cashews, eggs, and other sources of protein. If you are vegan, you are in good shape, remember, no grains. There are a few bars you can use that I will get to later.

If you don’t prepare, you probably will fail.

One of the things we ate several times is various forms of curry. This is ideal because not only can you change up the vegetables, the turmeric in the curry is very good for your body. I suggest stocking up on curry powder.

Be ready to spend more time cooking and preparing meals. There are no drive-throughs in this plan. Give yourself an hour for dinner preparation each night. I will share ideas for meals later. My plan was to eat simple things during the day and make a healthy dinner at night.

Restaurants and the Whole30

My suggestion is to plan to stay away from restaurants for thirty days. We went out once, and it was extremely frustrating. There was almost nothing on the menu that fit the plan. It was a horrible experience and, if I do this again, I will prepare every meal myself. I am not a huge fan of restaurants anyway, so this isn’t a significant loss for me.

Whole30 Compliant Snack Bars

There are a few snack bars that are Whole30 compliant and I have listed a few here.  The most inexpensive ones I was able to find are pictured above.  Please note that all Larabars are not Whole30 compliant.  The ones listed above are fine but please read ingredients on anything processed prior to eating.

Some of the EPIC bars such as the one pictured are also Whole30 compliant.  Just a warning, this chicken one is spicy!  Be sure to check all labels because some I found had added sugar.

RX bars are also mostly compliant.  I would not suggest eating any of these bars often.  Just keep them on hand for emergency use.  It is much better to always eat whole foods.

A Few Whole30 Recipes I Used

I have added a few recipes to this post that my family ate during the Whole30 experience.  The first is a snack bar that is super easy to make and very good.  So good, in fact, I am still making these even after finishing the Whole30.  The second is a frittata where you could substitute virtually any vegetable that works with eggs.  The last is a curry recipe. As I said above, we ate a lot of curry during the Whole30 and you could use any vegetables or curry types for this. 

My Experience with the Whole30

My starting weight was 188 pounds on 10/15/19. The first day was excellent. In the morning, I had black coffee only. For lunch, I had cherry tomatoes, blackberries, and raspberries. This was my pattern, although some days, I added almonds or cashews and turkey or tuna to lunch. I skipped breakfast almost every day, which is typical for me. The first night I made chicken primavera from the Whole30 book for dinner.

Day two, I was tired and hungry. I made a spinach frittata for dinner. I am not a fan of eggs, but it was pretty good.

Day three was a good day. I had a false sense that the hard part was over, but I was very wrong. Spaghetti squash with marinara sauce, steamed broccoli, and chicken Italian from 365 was dinner.

Day four, I was sluggish in the AM, but the day got better.

On day five, Luke Combs came to Portland, and Cathy and I went to see him. It was a great concert, and I didn’t think much about food. I made pork meatballs and sweet potatoes with bell peppers, zucchini, and tomatoes in a red curry sauce.

Day six was the WORST day of all, especially in the evening. I ate a lot of food but I felt like my energy was depleted. I wasn’t sure if I could make it. Looking back, I’m glad I pushed through. I worked the evening shift and didn’t get home until after midnight.

Day seven, I slept until 10 am.  I had two poached eggs and stuffed peppers before leaving for work. The worst was over!

Day eight, even with five hours of sleep, I felt amazing all day. I had read about it, but guess what happened next?

Tiger blood

The Whole30 book says this should happen from day 16 to 27 but it occurred for me on day 9. I can’t explain this feeling, but it is terrific. I felt better than I have in years. I attribute it to being detoxed off of all the crap I had been eating. I won’t bore you with all the details of the rest of the days, but they all went pretty well. I did get a little tired of the same food towards the end. In the last couple of days, I wanted to change up the diet a little.

We had curry in one form or another nine different nights. I had it leftover at least twice. I would say one of the main things I learned is that curry is excellent and healthy.

Michael Brown pictured with Final Thought written

I woke up at 2 am on day 31 and weighed myself. I was down to 175.8 pounds, so in 30 days, I lost 12.2 pounds.

I am not sure if I would do this again, but it wasn’t terrible, especially after day six. I did feel great during the last couple of weeks.

My wife also lost weight but struggled at times to find compliant food to eat when I wasn’t around.  Her skin improved, and she experienced no migraine headaches during the thirty days.  

Cathy brought home a pizza for the kids on day 15. This was probably the hardest thing to ignore because it smelled delicious plus I was hungry. I had a few days that I had to pass on Krispy Kreme donuts and candy, as well. I thought I would miss Diet Coke more than I did, but I guess I missed Mexican and Italian food much more.

Here is what I plan to change as a result of this experience; I will continue to drink my coffee black and cut back on soda, I want to continue the habit of drinking a lot of water daily, and fresh fruit and vegetables will always be available. I plan to snack on them often. I will keep monitoring my weight and try to stay where I am currently.

If you are interested in what I ate the other days, feel free to send me a message. I kept track of my meals, so I’d be glad to share that with you. If you have any questions regarding my experience, feel free to ask.

I am creating a diet of my own that I will share will you in the next few months.  One of the new products I have enjoyed is available below.  Give it a try.  Who doesn’t like pizza?  This crust eliminates unnecessary carbs!

I am creating a diet of my own that I will share will you in the next few months.  One of the new products I have enjoyed is available below.  Give it a try.  Who doesn’t like pizza?  This crust eliminates unnecessary carbs!

Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.