9 Best Herbs For Focus

herbs in a mortal and pestal

Are you looking for something to improve your concentration?

 Do you want increased energy levels and mental clarity? 

This post will review several herbal supplements that can improve brain function, boost energy levels, and enhance cognitive performance.

Lemon Balm

Lemon Balm

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is an herb that has been used for centuries to promote calmness, reduce stress and anxiety, and improve cognitive function. Some studies suggest that it may help improve focus and concentration.

A study published in the journal “Nutrients” found that lemon balm extract improved cognitive performance and mood in healthy young adults. The researchers attributed these effects to the herb’s ability to modulate neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, which is involved in learning and memory.1

Lemon balm, in combination with valerian root, passionflower, and butterbur extracts (Ze 185), has been shown to decrease the need for benzodiazepines in some patients.2

 These studies suggest that it may be a useful natural remedy for improving cognitive function and reducing stress and anxiety. 

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo Biloba

Like lemon balm, Ginkgo Biloba has a variety of health benefits. It is a powerful antioxidant that can decrease oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals. One study published in 2002 showed Ginkgo Biloba may enhance memory in healthy individuals 60 years of age and older.3

Another study showed Ginkgo Biloba was effective in improving mental status scores in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment.4

It is important to note that not all studies have confirmed these findings. 

Ginko Biloba is a very popular natural herb, and in the book “Rosemary Gladstar’s Herbs for Longevity and Well-Being,” it is named as her number one herb of longevity.

Gotu Kola

Gotu Kola

Gotu Kola is an herb related to parsley. This ayurvedic herb has been used for wound healing, circulation, and burns. 

Gotu kola (Centella Asiatica) is an herb that has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine to improve cognitive function, memory, and concentration. Some studies have investigated the effects of gotu kola on focus and concentration.

One study found that a combination of gotu kola and Bacopa monnieri (another herb traditionally used for cognitive enhancement) improved cognitive function, attention, and working memory in healthy adults.5

An article in Trends in Food Science & Technology concluded  C. asiatica can be neuroprotective and targets multiple disease pathways to fight neurodegenerative disorders.6


Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an adaptogenic herb that has been routinely used in Ayurvedic medicine to improve cognitive function, including memory, concentration, and mental focus. Some studies have investigated the effects of ashwagandha on mental focus.

One study published in the Journal of Dietary Supplements found that ashwagandha root extract improved cognitive function, including attention and information processing speed, in healthy adults.7

A separate study found Ashwagandha can enhance memory, reduce brain aging and stress.8

A review of several studies published in the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine found ashwagandha has potential as a natural cognitive enhancer, particularly for improving memory and attention.9

Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa monnieri is an herb traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine to enhance cognitive function, including memory and focus. Several studies have investigated the effects of Bacopa monnieri on focus and concentration.

One study published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine found that Bacopa monnieri improved cognitive function and processing speed in healthy older adults.10

 Another study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology found that Bacopa monnieri improved memory consolidation and attention in healthy adults. This study also showed Bacopa has an anxiolytic effect as well.11

A review of several studies published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology concluded that Bacopa monnieri has potential as a cognitive enhancer, particularly for improving memory and attention.

Green Tea

Green Tea

Green tea is a popular beverage that contains a variety of compounds, including caffeine and L-theanine, that may have cognitive-enhancing effects.

One study published in Phytomedicine found that green tea improved memory, attention, and brain function.12

Another study found that higher consumption of green tea is associated with a lower incidence of cognitive impairment in humans.13

More research is needed to grasp the effects of green tea on focus and concentration. These studies suggest that the combination of caffeine and L-theanine in green tea may have cognitive-enhancing benefits. It’s important to note that green tea and its extracts do contain caffeine, which can have side effects like jitteriness, insomnia, and increased heart rate, especially in high doses or in individuals who are sensitive to caffeine.

Asian Ginseng

Asian Ginseng

Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) is an herb that has been traditionally used in Chinese medicine to enhance cognitive function, including memory, concentration, and mental clarity. Some studies have investigated the effects of Asian ginseng on mental focus.

One study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology found that a single dose of Asian ginseng improved cognitive performance, including attention, working memory, and reaction time, in healthy young adults.14

Another study published in the journal Phytotherapy Research found that daily supplementation with Asian ginseng extract improved cognitive function and mood in middle-aged adults with age-related cognitive decline.15

A review of several studies published in the Journal of Ginseng Research concluded that Asian ginseng has potential as a natural cognitive enhancer, particularly for improving attention and cognitive processing speed.16

While Asian ginseng appears to have promising effects on mental focus, more research is needed to fully understand its benefits and optimal dosages.

Rhodiola rosea

Rhodiola Rosea

Rhodiola rosea is an herb that has been traditionally used in Russia and Scandinavia to improve physical and mental performance, reduce fatigue, and enhance mood. In addition, some studies have investigated the effects of Rhodiola rosea on focus and concentration.

One study published in Molecules stated Rhodiola is effective in treating stress-related conditions and disorders.17

Another study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology found that Rhodiola rosea extract improved cognitive function and reduced mental fatigue in physicians working night shifts.18

A review of several studies published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine concluded that Rhodiola rosea has the potential as a natural cognitive enhancer, particularly for improving mental fatigue and stress-related cognitive dysfunction.

Holy Basil

Holy Basil

Holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum), also known as tulsi, is an herb that has been commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine to enhance cognitive function and reduce stress and anxiety. Some studies have investigated the effects of holy basil on focus and concentration.

One study published in the International Journal of Ayurveda Research found that holy basil extract improved cognitive function, including attention, memory, and executive function, in healthy adults.
Another study from the Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine found that holy basil extract improved cognitive function and reduced stress in healthy older adults.19

A review of several studies published in the Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Journal showed those who consumed Holy Basil had a positive change in mood and/or cognitive function regardless of age, gender, formulation, dose, or study quality.20

pharmacist Michael

If you are having trouble concentrating, the first step is to be sure you are eating a healthy diet and getting enough sleep. Exercise can also help. 

Medicinal herbs can be a good choice as well. I suggest finding a popular herbal blend such as Brain & Focus by Sunshine Nutraceuticals. 

This product is specially designed to improve memory and focus by utilizing vitamins, minerals, and natural herbs. It is crucial to take care of your physical and cognitive health. 

Always remember that just because some of these herbal remedies listed do not have robust clinical studies to support them, that does not mean they are ineffective. Clinical trials are expensive, and drug companies are unwilling to spend money on them if they cannot get a good return on their investment.

Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.

Lady suffering from menopausal symptoms

The Best Herbs for Female Hormone Balance

Lady suffering from menopausal symptoms

What are the best herbs for female hormone balance?

Are you a female who suffers from a hormonal imbalance?

Are you post-menopausal?

Are you looking for a way to restore hormonal balance without prescription medications?

Female hormonal imbalance can cause many annoying symptoms such as:

  • Weight Gain
  • Mood swings
  • Menstrual changes
  • Vaginal Dryness
  • Hair Loss
  • Low Libido
  • Increase in Acne
  • Digestive problems
  • Hot Flashes
  • Night Sweats

Several herbal remedies can help restore hormonal balance. This post will examine herbal supplements that can help balance female hormones. 



Ashwagandha is an adaptogenic herb. Adaptogens help our body adapt to stress by normalizing physiological processes. Ashwagandha has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine for its many positive medicinal effects on the body. For example, Ashwagandha is thought to improve the hormonal imbalances in females that can lead to cramping, irregular periods, fertility issues, and the negative symptoms of menopause.

Ashwagandha has been shown to improve sexual function in healthy women.1

Dong Quai

Dong Quai is a plant in the same family as carrots, celery, and parsley. The roots of the Dong Quai plant have been used to treat the symptoms of menopause.

It is thought to act similar to estrogen, and because of this, dong quai may interact with estrogen-containing medications. Dong quai may also interact with Warfarin, and other blood thinners, which may increase bleeding risks.

chaste berry


The chaste tree berry is the fruit of the chaste tree. This berry is also known as monk’s pepper because monks were thought to use this to decrease sexual desire in the Middle Ages.

Even though sample sizes were small, clinical studies have shown extracts of chasteberry can effectively treat premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and latent hyperprolactinemia.2

These results suggest chasteberry may help restore female hormone balance, especially concerning prolactin, progesterone, and possibly estrogen.

red clover

Red Clover

Red clover is a flowering plant that belongs to the bean family. Red clover has been shown to be effective in treating hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms.3

There are interactions between red clover and some medications. Check with your physician or pharmacist if you plan to take this supplement. This is true, especially if you take blood thinners, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy.4

Red clover also possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This herb can be consumed in herbal teas or supplement forms.

Evening Primrose Oil

Evening primrose (EPO) is a flowering plant native to North and South America. Its flowers are closed during the day and open at sunset. EPO is made from the plant’s seeds and contains gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and other omega-6 fatty acids.

GLA has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pain-relieving properties. GLA may also affect hormone levels which could explain its use in relieving PMS symptoms, including hot flashes. One study found EPO was able to reduce the severity of hot flashes when compared to a placebo.5

EPO has also been used for breast tenderness and pain, although studies have not shown it to be more effective than a placebo.

Fenugreek Seed

Fenugreek is an herb native to West Asia, parts of Europe, and Iran. This herb has been used to stimulate milk production in new mothers. A study published in 2014 concluded that Fenugreek Seed reduced dysmenorrhea symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, headache, syncope, and fatigue.6

Avena sativa

Avena Sativa

Avena sativa is the Latin name for the common oat. Oats are often consumed as oatmeal for breakfast. Some people believe oats can increase blood flow, increase sexual desire and help to relieve menstrual cramping. Oats may also remove testosterone from binding sites.

Black cohosh

Black Cohosh

The roots of black cohosh are often used to relieve premenstrual syndrome (PMS), menstrual cramps, and menopausal symptoms. However, rather than increasing estrogen levels, it is thought that black cohosh may increase the effects of estrogen.

Black cohosh may cause headache, rash, and an upset stomach and may also have negative effects on the liver. Black cohosh should not be combined with hepatotoxic medications.

maca root

Maca Root

Maca root, also known as Peruvian ginseng, is a vegetable belonging to the brassica (mustard) family. It is native to the Peruvian Andes mountain range and has been used as a food and herbal medicine for 2000 years in Peru.7

Maca may help with specific menopausal systems such as hot flashes and poor sleep.

Although few extensive clinical studies have been conducted on the use of maca for the treatment of menopause, a systematic review conducted in 2011 found maca to be more effective than a placebo.8

More research needs to be completed to evaluate this herb’s safety and effectiveness in treating menopause.

I believe herbs available today may decrease the need for hormone replacement therapy in women. Hormone imbalance in women can reduce their quality of life. Many of these herbal supplements can also help with other ailments, as noted below:

Ashwagandha: stress, depression, anxiety, improved memory, insomnia, inflammation

Dong quai: Premature ejaculation

Chaste berry: Acne, infertility

Red clover: Cancer, heart disease, bone loss

Evening primrose oil: Acne, eczema, skin health, hypertension, nerve pain, heart health, bone pain

Fenugreek seed: cholesterol, heartburn, appetite suppressant, inflammation, diabetes

Avena sativa: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gout, anxiety, constipation, gallstones

Maca root: Erectile dysfunction, fertility enhancement, anemia, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

I have attempted to include the best herbs available today to help balance hormonal issues in women. In addition to these natural products, there are other terrific options available to help, including:

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
  • Mindfulness
  • Yoga
  • Reflexology
  • Acupuncture
  • Biofeedback and relaxation training
  • Hypnosis

As a society, I believe we are too quick to turn to prescription medications. As a pharmacist, I recognize that every drug has side effects. The combination of medicines can also cause harmful effects. I firmly believe alternative approaches should be tried for many ailments before prescription drugs. Always remember the five pillars of health:

  1. Eat Whole Foods
  2. Drink Plenty of Water
  3. Exercise
  4. Get Enough Sleep
  5. Foster Spiritual and Mental Health

Thank you so much for taking the time to read my post. If you have any questions or comments, feel free to email me. My contact information is available in the author box below.

Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.


Ashwagandha Withanolides: Uses, Side Effects, and Contraindications

Disclosure:  This post may contain affiliate links, meaning, at no additional cost to you, I may earn a commission if you click on, or make a purchase through a third-party link.

Ashwagandha, or Withania somnifera is an evergreen shrub that grows in hot, dry climates.  This herb is very popular in India and the Middle East.  The shrub produces small greenish-yellow flowers as well as fleshy fruit which is orange-red when ripe.  Ashwagandha is sometimes called “winter cherry”.

Ashwaghanda has been utilized in Ayurvedic medicine.  This “whole-body” healing system was developed in India more than 3000 years ago.  It is used as a Rasayana which is an herbal or metallic substance that increases happiness and helps promote a youthful mental and physical condition.  Withania is the most prominent ayurvedic Rasayana herb and is given to small children as well as middle-aged and elderly in hopes of increasing longevity. Ashwagandha supplements are most commonly recommended for energy enhancement and to boost exercise performance. 1

Withania somnifera contains a group of pharmaceutically active steroidal lactones known as withanolides.  These withanolides are believed to have many positive medical effects including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. 2

The word ashwagandha translates to “smells like a horse”.   It not only smells like a horse but is also thought to give those who ingest it the power of a horse.  Ashwagandha is also known as Indian ginseng, even though it is generally used for its calming and anti-stress properties whereas ginseng supports energy and stamina. 3

Ashwagandha and Cognition

Cognition is a complicated process and is performed by our brain.  It includes thinking, communicating, problem solving, memory, judgement, processing information from our senses and more.   It is not surprising that many are interested in obtaining substances which improve cognition.  These substances are known as nootropics.  As we get older, our cognition tends to decline.  A study by Sing-Manoux et.al found this decline often begins between 45 and 55 years of age. 4

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on a group of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).  This is a state between normal cognitive aging and dementia.  These people have memory deficits but not to the extent that activities of daily living are adversely affected.  A total of fifty adults were randomized to receive either 300 mg Ashwagandha root extract in capsule form, twice daily, for eight weeks or a placebo. 

The researchers concluded that “Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) may be useful in enhancing immediate and general memory, executive function, attention, and information processing speed in people with MCI, with few adverse effects.” 5

The Anxiety Formula available in our Sunshine Store contains Ashwagandha.  This is a supplement I consume daily to keep me focused and to clear my mind.  I have had great success with this supplement and have had no adverse effects occurring with its use.  You can order this supplement by clicking the box shown below.

Ashwagandha and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental illness where the patient to suffers from obsessive, intrusive thoughts.  These thoughts may lead the patient to clean continuously or constantly check light switches to be sure they are off, etc.  This disorder can cause distress to the point that it affects daily functioning.   Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the medications most commonly used for OCD.  Unfortunately, SSRIs are only mildly effective in treating OCD. 6




A study conducted in 2016 showed Ashwagandha was more effective than placebo in improving Y-BOCS scores in patients with a diagnosis of OCD.  Y-BOCS is the standard test for assessing the frequency and severity of OCD symptoms.  Thirty patients were randomized into two groups and Y-BOCS scores were evaluated in both groups at baseline and after six weeks of treatment.  The treatment group received an evaporated root extract of Ashwagandha obtained from Iran.  Each capsule contained either 30mg of root extract and lactose to a total weight of 250mg, or lactose only (placebo).  The treatment group had Y-BOCS scores improve by 8 units, whereas the placebo group only improved by 2 units.  This was a statistically significant difference. 10

Ashwagandha and Blood Sugar Levels in Schizophrenia

I work as a psychiatric pharmacist so I am concerned about the effects of antipsychotic agents on blood sugar.  A small study was published in the Indian Journal of Pharmacology in 2013.  This study was designed to assess the ability of Ashwagandha to decrease blood sugar levels in schizophrenic patients who were receiving second-generation antipsychotic medications.

This study found a significant improvement in both fasting blood glucose and serum triglyceride levels in the Withania group as compared to the placebo group.  More studies with a larger sample size are needed to establish safety and efficacy of this treatment option. 11

Ashwagandha for Pain and Inflammation

Pain relief has become more difficult in the wake of the opiate crisis.  Many physicians are not willing to prescribe opiates for chronic pain due to the recent guidelines which recommend against this practice.  Unfortunately, other drug classes, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), also can be detrimental, especially if taken over an extended period of time.  Pain can be debilitating for some. It can lead to problems sleeping, decreased mood, and reduced work performance.

A study was performed to see what effects a single 1000 mg dose of Withania somnifera would have on mechanical pain.   In this study a device was set up to measure pain threshold as well as pain tolerance force and time.  The researchers found Withania somnifera increased pain threshold and pain tolerance force and time as compared to placebo.  No adverse effects were reported in this study. 12

W. somnifera has also demonstrated analgesic and antipyretic effects in rat models. A study was done comparing Ashwagandha root powder to indomethacin. This study showed the root powder was able to curb the inflammatory response without causing damage to the GI tract of the rats. 13


Ashwagandha for Stress, Anxiety and Cortisol Levels

Ashwagandha is probably most known for its effects as an adaptogen.  These substances (adaptogens) are able to help the body combat physical, chemical, and biological stress.  A study published in 2012 included 64 people who had a history of chronic stress.  These subjects were randomly assigned to two groups.  The treatment group received 300mg Ashwagandha root extract in capsule form twice daily for 60 days.  The other group, placebos.

On day 60, the treatment group displayed a significant reduction in all stress assessment scales relative to the placebo group.   Serum cortisol levels were also substantially reduced in the treatment group.  Cortisol is the body’s main stress hormone.  Increased cortisol levels can be an indication of increased stress. 14

Ashwagandha as a Cancer Treatment

Scientists have been searching for a cure for cancer for many years.  Most of the medications available to treat various cancer types come with a long list of life-changing side effects.  Ashwagandha root extract was first shown to decrease cancer incidence experimentally in vivo in 1967. 15

This has led to an increasing interest in Withania for both cancer treatment as well as prevention.

We know that the carcinogenic process is prolonged.  Is there a way to prevent cancer?  In 1976, the idea of chemoprevention was presented by Michael Sporn. 16

The definition of chemoprevention is the use of natural, synthetic, biological or chemical agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis.  This has become an increasingly popular area of research.  Natural substances and nutraceuticals are getting a closer look.  Sulforaphane derived from vegetables such as broccoli for prostate cancer and turmeric for colorectal cancer prevention are examples of studies currently under way.

Breast Cancer

A study using mice that were predisposed to developing breast cancer showed a 33% reduction in tumor formation when being fed a diet containing 750mg/kg of Withania root extract for 10 months. 17

Hepatocellular Cancer

Cancer of the liver is aggressive and has a poor response rate to traditional cancer therapies. 18

A study, published in the Journal of International Medical Research in 2018, concluded the water extract of Withania somnifera is a powerful antioxidant and has anticancer effects on HepG2 cells.  They suggest it may be a favorable treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma and should be confirmed in animal studies. 19

There are barriers to using Withania for chemoprotection.  This plant only thrives under specific environmental conditions and is relatively slow growing.  There is also variability in the alkaloids and withanolides produced by each plant, as well as different parts of the plant (leaves vs roots).  This variability requires standardization of the active components of the preparation.  Care must also be taken to not over-utilize fertilizers and pesticides when growing Ashwagandha. 20

Ashwagandha Contraindications

Although Ashwagandha is considered safe for most individuals, there are three groups of people who should avoid it. 

  • Those with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: Ashwagandha may increase testosterone levels, therefore, it should not be consumed by these patients. 21
  • Those who take benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or anticonvulsants: Ashwagandha may have a sedative effect, as well as effects on GABA, so it should not be used in these patients. 22
  • Pregnant women: Ashwagandha may induce abortion at higher doses. 23

Ashwagandha Side Effects

Ashwagandha has very few side effects when utilized in normal doses.  A study using Sprague-Dawley rats did show some sedation, ptosis and ataxia 15-20 minutes after administering Withania but this was a very large dose 1-2g/kg. 24

Michael Brown pictured with Final Thought written

Ashwaganda is one of the most prized herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine.  This herb contains many substances, including withanolides, which seem to be effective for a wide range of ailments. 

Ashwaganda has been shown to possess chemopreventive as well as chemotherapeutic properties.  Research is being done to assess its use for the prevention and treatment for certain types of cancer.  Ashwagandha has been used for thousands of years in India for its calming and anti-stress effects. 

There is also some evidence to suggest Ashwagandha can improve cognition, help with pain and inflammation and lower blood sugar levels.

This herb may also have a positive effect on certain neurogenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. 25I believe Ashwagandha is a valuable herb which will be more widely utilized as information from clinical trials becomes available.  This herb has few side effects and is well tolerated.  It is one of the ingredients in the Sunshine Sleep Aid as well as our Anxiety Formula, and I also have a single ingredient Ashwagandha product as well.

Please contact me with any questions.  This has been a complex subject to research and there is much more to learn.  It does give me hope for the future of cancer treatment in the United States.  As always, live a happy, healthy life and most of all, stay happy!

Michael Brown in Lab Coat with arms crossed

Michael J. Brown, RPh, BCPS, BCPP

Mr. Brown is a Clinical Pharmacist specializing in pharmacotherapy and psychiatry.

Read Michael’s story here.

Feel free to send Michael a message using this link.